Phenotypic diversity in Ethiopian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) landraces

Dejene K. Mengistu 已出版文章查询
Dejene K. Mengistu
1 Afeworki Y. Kiros 已出版文章查询
Afeworki Y. Kiros
1 Mario E. Pè 已出版文章查询
Mario E. Pè

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1Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural Sciences, Mekelle University, P.0.Box 231 Mekelle, Ethiopia

2Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna SSSUP, Pizza Martiri Liberà, 33-56127, Pisa, Italy

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The phenotypic diversity of 274 Ethiopian durum wheat accessions was analyzed, taking their geographic origins into account. The aim was to assess the extent and patterns of agronomically important phenotypic variation across districts of origin and altitude classes for major qualitative traits using diversity index and multivariate methods. Eight qualitative and three quantitative traits were scored for 2740 plants and analyzed for diversity. The Shannon–Weaver diversity (H′) index was used to estimate phenotypic diversity. The estimated H′ ranged from monomorphic for glume hairiness to highly polymorphic for other traits. The highest (0.86) H′ was obtained for seed degree of shriveling, possibly indicating the differential responses of the genotypes to water deficit during later growth stages. With respect to district of origin, the highest (0.72) and lowest (0.44) H′values were obtained for the Bale and SNNP districts, respectively. With respect to altitude, the highest (0.76) and lowest (0.62) H′values were recorded for altitudes 1600–2000 and >3000 m above sea levels, respectively. Principal components analysis explained substantial variation contributed by district of origin and altitude range. Genotypes were clustered into three groups by districts of origin and altitude class, with relatively strong bootstrap values of 57 and 62 for the former and latter, respectively. It could be concluded that Ethiopian durum wheat landraces are very diverse both within and among districts of origin and altitude classes. This wealth of genetic diversity should be exploited for wheat improvement of yield and for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly terminal drought.

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