生物入侵对鸟类的生态影响

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干晓静
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1 李博 已出版文章查询
李博
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1 陈家宽 已出版文章查询
陈家宽
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1 马志军 已出版文章查询
马志军
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zhijunm@fudan.edu.cn
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1复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所,生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室,长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站,上海,200433


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生物入侵是全球生物多样性面临的最主要威胁之一,入侵种在改变入侵地环境的同时也使当地的生物受到极大影响.鸟类在生态系统中处于较高的营养级,生态系统中任何一个环节的变化都可能对鸟类造成一定的影响.本文回顾了哺乳动物、鸟类、无脊椎动物和植物等不同生物类群的入侵对本地鸟类生态影响方面的研究进展.外来生物对鸟类的影响主要表现在以下几方面:(1)外来哺乳动物对成鸟、幼鸟或鸟卵的捕食作用;(2)外来鸟类与本地鸟类竞争栖息地和食物资源,与当地的近缘种杂交而造成基因流失;(3)外来无脊椎动物改变本地鸟类的栖息环境和食物状况,甚至直接捕食本地鸟类;(4)外来植物入侵改变入侵地的植物群落组成和结构,造成本地鸟类的栖息地丧失或破碎化,并通过改变入侵地生态系统的食物链结构而对高营养级的鸟类产生影响.最后,作者还提出了该领域有待解决的问题和今后可能的研究方向.

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语种: 中文   

基金国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)(2006CB403305)

关键词生物入侵 生态影响 入侵种 鸟类


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