On the role of topographic amplification in seismic slope instabilities
1Civil Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran, Iran
 Ambraseys NN;Menu JM .Earthquake-induced ground displacements[J].Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics,1988,16(07):985e1006.
 D. ASSIMAKI;G. GAZETAS .SOIL AND TOPOGRAPHIC AMPLIFICATION ON CANYON BANKS AND THE 1999 ATHENS EARTHQUAKE[J].Journal of earthquake engineering,2004(1):1-43.
 Boore DM .A note on the effect of simple topography on seismic SH waves[J].Bul etin of the Seismological Society of America,1972,62(01):275e84.
 Bouckovalas GD;Papadimitriou AG .Numerical evaluation of slope topography ef-fects on seismic ground motion[J].Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,2005,25(7e10):547e58.
 Celebi M .Topographic and geological amplifications determined from strong-motion and aftershock records of the 3 March,1985 Chile earthquake[J].Bul etin of the Seismological Society of America,1987,77(04):1147e67.
 Clough RW.The finite element method in plane stress analysis[A].Pittsburgh,USA:ASCE Struc-tural Division,1960
 Das BM.Advanced soil mechanics[M].McGraw-Hil,1985
 Electric Power Research Institute(EPRI) .Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions.Final Rep.No.TR-102293[R].Palo Alto:California,1996.
 Farahi Jahromi H;Joshaghani M;Sehi-Zadeh M;Yousefi S.Comparison of dynamical y-induced experimental slope deformations with numerical sliding block theory[A].Paris,France,2013
 Gazetas G;Kal ou PV;Psarropoulos PN .Topography and soil effects in the Ms 5.9 Parnitha(Athens)earthquake:the case of Adames[J].NATURAL HAZARDS,2002,27(1e 2):133e69.
 Iai S .Similitude for shaking table tests on soil-structure-field model in 1 g gravi-tational field[J].SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS,1989,29(01):105e18.
 S. IAI;T. TOBITA;T. NAKAHARA .Generalised scaling relations for dynamic centrifuge tests[J].Geotechnique,2005(5):355-362.
 Ishibashi I;Zhang X .Unified dynamic shear moduli and damping ratios of sand and clay[J].SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS,1993,33(01):182e91.
 Jibson RW .Summary of research on the effects of topographic amplification of earthquake shaking on slope stability[R].Menlo Park,CA:US Geological Survey,1987.
 Jibson RW .Predicting earthquake-induced landslide displacements using New-mark's sliding block analysis[J].TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD,1993,1411:9e17.
 Jibson RW .Methods for assessing the stability of slopes during earthquakesdA retrospective[J].Engineering Geology,2011,122(1e2):43e50.
 Kramer SL.Geotechnical earthquake engineering[M].Prentice-Hal,1996
 Kramer SL;Smith MW .Modified Newmark model for seismic displacements of compliant slopes[J].JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING,1997,123(07):635e44.
 Lin JS;Whiteman RV .Earthquake induced displacements of sliding blocks[J].Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,1986,112(01):44e59.
 Makdisi FI;Seed HB .Simplified procedure for estimating dam and embankment earthquake-induced deformations[J].Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,1978,104(07):849e67.
 Meek JW;Wolf JP .Cone models for homogeneous soil,I[J].Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,1992,118(05):667e85.
 Newmark NM .Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments[J].GEOTECHNIQUE,1965,15(02):139e60.
 Ohtsuki A;Harumi K .Effect of topography and subsurface inhomogeneities on seismic SV waves[J].Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics,1983,11(04):441e62.
 Rathje EM;Antonakos G .A unified model for predicting earthquake-induced sliding displacements of rigid and flexible slopes[J].Engineering Geology,2011,122(1e2):51e60.
 Sanchez-Sesma M;Campil o M .Topographic effects for incident P,SV,and Rayleigh waves[J].TECTONOPHYSICS,1993,218(1e3):113e25.
 Stewart JP;Sholtis SE .Case study of strong ground motion variations across cut slope[J].Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,2005,25(7e10):539e45.
 Tehran Gas Company(TGC).Geological and seismological reports of Tehran[M].Tehran,Iran,2012
 On a Possible Role of Rayleigh Surface Waves in Dynamic Slope Failures[J].International journal of geomechanics,2010(4):153-160.
 Yegian MK;Marciano E;Ghahraman VG .Earthquake-induced permanent de-formations:probabilistic Approach[J].Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,1991,117(01):35e50.
基金：The authors deeply appreciate Tehran Gas Company (TGS)s au...